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Iphigenia in Tauris 






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Iphigenia in Tauris. 



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Iphigenia. Attbn^dants. 

Orestes. Thoas. 

Pylades. Messenger. 

Oxherd. Athena, 

CJiorvs of GrREEK Captive Women. 
Enter Iphigenia. 

Iphigenia. Pelops the son of Tantalus, coming to 
Pisa bv the swiftness of his mares, wedded Oeuomaus' 
maid, from whom Atreus sprang. Now Atreus had two 
sons, Menelaus and Agamemnon ; and from the latter I 
had my being, Iphigenia, child of Tyndareus' daughter, 
whom, hard by the eddies that ofttimes Euripus churns, 
whirling the dark blue sea with close-following gusts, my 
father, as men deem, slew for Helen's sake at Artemis' in 
Aulis' famous bays. 

10. For there it was that King Agamemnon gathered a 
Hellenic fleet of a thousand ships, meaning the Achaeans 
to take the Avreath of fair victory over Ilium and to avenge 
Helen's outraged wedlock, in kindness to Menelaus But 
amid dire stress of weather, meeting with no favouring 
breezes, he came to the flame-omens, and Calchas spake on 
this wise: "Thou that art king of this Hellenic host, 
Agamemnon, thou shalt not unmoor thy ships from land 
till Artemis receive thy child Iphigenia, slaughtered with 


the knife ; for whatever the year gave birth to fairest of 
all, thou didst vow to offer to the goddess bringer of light. 
A daughter then in thy house thy spouse Clytemnestra bore 
(for he assigned to me the prize of beauty), whom it behoves, 
thee to offer." And by Odysseus' wiles they took me from 
my mother on a show of wedding with Achilles; but, 
arrived at Aulis, I the unhappy was held aloft above the 
altar and was like to have been slain with the sword; 
but Artemis stole me, giving the Achaeans a deer in my 
place, and through the bright heaven she wafted me, and 
set me in this land of the Tauri, where a foreign king rules 
the land amid a foreign race, Thoas, who, for that he ran 
with the speed of wings, attained the name for his swift- 
ness. And in this temple she set me as priestess ; where- 
fore, according to the rites with which the goddess Artemis 
is pleased (rites of a festival whose name alone is fair ; but 
for the rest I am dumb, in fear of the goddess) — I sacrifice, 
for so has been the custom of the state even from former 
days, whatever man of Hellas comes to shore on this land. 
I indeed but first cut the lock, but others have charge of 
the deeds of blood unspeakable within these halls of the 

42. New visions which the night has come bringing I 
will tell to the clear sky, if indeed this be any remedy. In 
sleep methought that, released from this land, I was 
dwelling in Argos and was sleeping amidst my maidens, 
and that earth's ridges were shaken with a sea-swell, and 
methought I was fleeing, and from outside looked upon 
the coping of the house as it fell, and all the roof hurled 
in ruins to the ground from the topmost capitals. But one 
pillar alone was left, as it seemed to me, of my ancestral 
halls, and methought there fell from its capitals golden hair; 
that it took the voice of man ; and that I, duly honouring 
the office of slaughtering strangers that is mine, sprinkled 
him as doomed to die, weeping the while. This dream 
then thus I put together. Orestes is dead, from whom I 
cut the first lock of hair. For pillars of the house are male 
children ; and they die whomsoe'er my lustrations touch. 
Nor, again, can I connect the dream with friends; for 
Strophius had no son in the day when I well nigh perished. 


61. Now, therefore, I am fain to make a drink-offering 
for my brother, I that am present here for one afar off ; 
for this I can do, with the attendants whom the king- 
gave me, women of Hellas. But seeing that from some 
cause they are not yet here, I will go within the house in 
which I dwell, even this temple of the goddess. \_Exit. 

Enter Orestes and Pylades. 

Orestes. Look thou, be on thy guard lest any mortal is 
on our path. 

I^YLADES. I look, and am searching, turning m}' eye 

Or. Pylades, seems it to thee that these are the halls of 
the goddess, for which we fitted out from Argos our sea- 
faring ship ? 

Pyl, To me it seems so, Orestes ; and thou must deem 
the like. 

Or. And is this the altar whence Grreek blood drips ? 

Pyl. At any rate it has its copings red with the shed- 
dings of blood. 

Or. And 'neath the very cornice seest thou spoils hung 

Pyl. Yes, first-fruits of the strangers who have died. 
But thou must cast thine eye about and search thoroughly. 

77. Or. Phoebus, to what end didst thou bring me 
again into this net with thine oracle, after I had, by slaying 
my mother, avenged a father's blood and was ever being 
di'iven by successive chase of Furies, a fugitive, an outcast 
from the land, and had ful^lled many courses returning upon 
themselves. So I came and asked thee how I should win 
to the end of my whirling madness and my toils, which I 
wrought out roaming through Hellas. And thou didst 
bid me go to the bounds of the Tauric land, where Artemis, 
thy sister, has altars, and take the goddess's image, which 
they say fell here into this shrine from heaven ; and when 
I had taken it either by wiles or by some chance, having 
risked the danger to the full, to present it to the Athe- 
nians' land ; but for the sequel nothing further was uttered; 


and after doing tLis I was to have some respite from my 

93. So, obedient to thy words, I am come hither to a 
country unknown, unfriendly. And I enquire of thee, 
Pylades, for thou art co-partner with me in this toil, what 
shall we do? Thou seest that the girdle of the walls is 
high : shall we then mount the approaches of the build- 
ing? How should we then escape notice? Or shall we 
loosen with levers the bronze-wrought bars of which we 
know nothing? But if we are caught forcing open the 
gates and contriving an entrance, we shall die. Come, 
before we die let us flee on board the ship in which we 
made our voyage hither. 

104. Pyl. To flee indeed is not to be borne, nor are we 
so wont; and we must not cast reproach on the god's 
oracular bidding. But getting clear of the temple let us 
hide ourselves in caves which the dark sea washes through 
with surf, far away from the ship, lest anyone setting eyes 
on the bark should tell the rulers and then we be taken 
by force. But when the eye of gloomy night shall come, 
then, I tell thee, we must dare to take from the shrine the 
polished image, bringing all contrivances to bear; yes, 
see where within the triglyphs is an empty space to let 
one's body down. For noble men dare labours, but cowaras 
are nowhere aught. 

Or. Surely it shall not be that we are come a long 
course by use of oar, and from the goal shall take our 
homeward road again. Stay, since fitly thou has spoken, 
we must obey. It behoves us to go to a spot in the land 
where we shall hide ourselves unnoticed. For no act of 
mine shall cause the god's word to fall unfulfilled ; the 
deed must be dared, for no amount of toil yields excuse to 
the young. [Exeunt. 

Enter Chorus. 

123. Chorus. Keep holy silence, O ye that dwell by the 
Euxine sea's twin meeting rocks. 

O daughter of Leto, Dictynna of the mountains, to thy 
court— the fair-pillared temple's gilded cornices — I, slave 
of a holy custodian, move a holy virgin foot, having 


changed my home from the towers and walled towns of 
Hellas, land of noble steeds, and from Europe, land of 
pasture with fair trees, the seat of my fathers' halls. 

Enter Iphigexia. 

I am come. What news? What care hast thou? 
Why didst thou bring, yea, bring me to the shrines, 
child of him who came to Troy's towers with famous fleet 
of thousand sailors, myriad- weaponed, the fleet of the 
famous Atridae ? 

143. Iph. handmaidens, how am I fallen upon lamen- 
tations grievous to lament, elegies in strains of uii tuneful 
cry, unmeet for the lyre, ah me ! amid my mournful 
wailings for the blind fates that now befall me, as I be- 
moan my kinsman for his lost life I such vision of dreams 
I saw in the night whose darkness has but now passed 

I am undone, undone ! I have no father's house : ah 
me ! my race is blotted out. Alas ! alas for the troubles in 
Argos ! Ah, thou fate, ah, thou who robbest me of my 
only brother, sending him to Hades, for whom I am in 
act to pour out these libations and the bowl of the departed 
on the back of earth, and a milk-spring from mountain 
heifers, and Bacchus' draughts of wine, and tawny bees' 
labour, which are the appointed oflerings to soothe the dead. 

Come, give into my hand the vessel all of gold and 
Hades' draught. 

170. 0, thou scion of Agamemnon beneath the earth, 
this do I send to thee as now deceased. Receive it; for I 
shall not bring to thy tomb my golden hair, I shall not 
bring tears. For far indeed did I come away from thy 
country and mine, where in men's thoughts I lie slaugh- 
tered, the unhappy victim. 

179. Cho. Responsive strains, and an Asiatic melody, a 
barbaric wail, I will utter to thee, mistress, the music in 
dirges, such as the dead yearn for, which Hades sounds 
forth in songs far removed from paeans. 

Ah me! the sceptred hght of the house of the 
Atridae is gone — ah me for my fatlifr's house ! Who of 



the glorious kings at Argos has now the sovereignty? But 
trouble rushes forth from troubles, from the time when 
with whirling winged mares the sun shifted from his seat 
and turned elsewhere the sacred eye of light. And from 
the golden fleeced lamb upon each succeeding generation 
in our halls came a fi'esh sorrow, murder upon mui'der, 
and woes upon woes ; whence it comes that a penalty for 
the sons of Tantalus slain before goes forth against the 
house, and the god speeds with fell speed against thee. 

203. Iph. From the first an ill- genius to me was the 
genius of niy mother's girdle and of that night ; from the 
first the Fates, goddesses of birth, strained harsh my up- 
bringing — for me, whom the lady wooed by suitors from 
the Hellenes, Leda's miserable daughter, brought forth in 
her bower, a firstborn child, and reared to be a victim by 
a father's outrage, and no joj^ous sacrifice ; yea me, in 
fulfilment of a vow, in a steed-drawn chariot, they set upon 
Aulis' sands a bride— ah me ! — an ill-starred bride for the 
son of Nereus' daughter, alas ! 

218. But now, a guest of an inhospitable sea, I dwell in 
a barren home, with no bridegroom, no child, no city, no 
friend, not singing our Hera at Argos, nor amid the sweet- 
twanging looms weaving with the comb the likeness of 
Attic Pallas and the Titans, but staining the altars wioh 
the bloody doom of strangers, a doom ill-attuned to the 
lyre — as they utter the piteous sound "Aiai!" and weep 
piteous tears. 

And now of those things indeed have I forget- 
f ulness ; but I mourn my brother dead at Argos, whom I 
left at the breast still a nursling, still young, still a young 
plant in his mother's arms and at her bosom, Orestes 
bearer of the sceptre at Argos. 

236. Cho. And see here, leaving the sea cliffs, an 
oxherd is come to make known to thee something new. 

Enter the Oxherd. 

Oxherd. Child of Agamemnon and Olytaemnestra, hear 
from me strange tidings. 

Iph. And what is there astounding in thy present tale ? 


OxH. There are come to the land, having shunned with 
the oar the dark-blue Symplegades, two youths, an offer- 
ing for sin and a sacrifice dear to the goddess Artemis. 
And thou canst not coo soon make ready the lustral 
waters and first rites. 

Iph. From what land? Of what country is the dress 
that the strangers wear ? 

OxH. They are Hellenes. This one thing I know, and 
nothing furtlier. 

Iph. And knowest thou not by hearing the strangers' 
name to tell it ? 

OxH. Pylades the one was called by the other. 

250. Iph. And the stranger, his yokefellow, what was 
his name ? 

OxH. None knows it ; for we heard it not. 

Iph. But how did ye see them, and fall in with them 
and capture them ? 

OxH. Upon the edge of the surf of the unfriendly sea- 

Iph. Pray what fellowship have oxherds with the sea ? 

OxH. We came to bathe our oxen in the sea dew. 

Iph. Eeturn now to this — how ye took them, and in 
what manner ; for this I mean to hear. For after a long 
while are they come, nor yet meantime was the goddess' 
altar empurpled with streams of Greek blood. 

260 OxH. When we were forcing our wood-pasturing 
oxen into the sea that flows in through the Symplegades, 
there was by us a certain hollow cliff cleft by much 
washing of the waves, a shelter of purple-mussel fishers. 
There one oxherd of us saw two youths, and stepped 
back again, steering his track on tip toe. And he said : 
" See ye not? Some deities are these sitting here." And 
one of us, being devout, held up his hands and praj'ed 
when he looked upon them: ''0 Leucothea, son of the sea- 
nymph guardian of ships, lord Palaemon, prove merciful 
to us, whether they, the twain that sit on the cliffs, be the 
Dioscuri or the darlings of Nereus who begat the well- 
born band of the fifty Nereids." But some other, irreve- 
rent, bold ill his lawlessness, laughed at the prayers, and 
said that tliey were castaway sailors sitting in the ravine 


for fear of our custom, having heard that here we sacrifice 
strangers. Now to the most of us he seemed to speak 
well, and we deemed it right to catch for the goddess the 
country's wonted victims. 

281. And at this moment one of the strangers, quitting 
the rock, arose and shook his head up and down, and 
groaned besides, trembling to his arm-ends, frenzied with 
madness, and he shouted like a hunter: ''Pylades, be- 
holdest thou her here? and seest thou not this other 
Hell's she-dragon, how she is minded to slay me, armed 
with dread vipers in array against me ? And that other 
again, from the folds of her dress breathing fire and 
slaughter, beats with her wings, as it were a rower, holding 
my mother in. her arms, a stony boulder, to throw at me. 
Ah me ! she will slay me ; whither am I to flee?" Yet ncT 
shapes of form like these were there to see, but he changed 
in his thoughts the bleatings of calves and the barkings 
of dogs for the like sounds which they say the Furies utter. 

295. But we, cowering as if in fear of death, sat in 
silence; and he, drawing his sword, rushed into the 
midst of the heifers like a lion, and pierced with his steel 
their flanks, thrusting it into their ribs, deeming that thus 
he warded off the goddesses even the Furies, so that the 
sea-flood flushed red with blood. 

301. And on this each one of us, when he beheld the 
grazing cattle falling and being destroyed, armed himself, 
both blowing shells and gathering the country people; 
for against youthful strangers nobly born we thought 
oxherds sorry fellows to fight. So we made up a goodly 
number in a little space. And the stranger fell, ceasing 
from his fit of madness, his chin dripping with foam. And 
when we saw him fallen ready to our hand, every man set 
to work hurling, pelting. Meanwhile the other of the 
strangers was wiping ofl: the foam and tending him, and 
held before him for shelter the finely- woven web of his 
robes, looking out indeed for the wounds that were coming, 
but ministering to the man his friend with kindly service. 

315. And starting up in his senses from his fallen state, 
the stranger perceived the surge of enemies dashing on 
him, and the present calamity that was near at hand to 


them, and cried, " Ah me ! " But we did not abate hurling 
stones, one pressing hard upon them from one side, another 
from another ; whereat, indeed, we heard that di-ead en- 
couragement : "Pylades, we shall die, but see to it that 
we die most nobly. Follow me, drawing with thy hand 
the sword." But when we saw the foemen's two blades 
brandished, in flight we filled the rugged dells. But if 
one fled, the others pressed them hard and threw at them ; 
and if they drove off these, again they who but now 
gave groimd hurled stones. 

328. But it was past belief — how, from a thousand 
hands, no one was lucky in hitting the goddess' destined 
offerings. And scarcely did we bring them down : not in- 
deed by courage, but forming round them in a ring we 
stealthily struck the swords from their hands with stones, 
and they sunk on the knee to the ground with weariness. 
Then we brought them to the king of this land ; and he, 
looking on them, with all the speed he could sent them to 
thee for the lustral water and the slaughter bowls. 

336. And pray thou, maiden, that such victims from 
among strangers may be ever here for thee ; and if thou 
takest the life of strangers like these, Hellas will atone 
for thy murder, paying the penalty for the slaughter at 

Cho. Wondrous tales thou tellest of him who has 
appeared, whoever it is that came from the land of Hellas 
to the inhospitable sea. 

342. Iph. So be it I Do thou go and bring the 
strangers, but the rites here I will care for. 

much enduring heart, before, indeed, thou wast to 
strangers calm and compassionate ever, granting a meed of 
tears to kinship's tie whenever thou didst receive men of 
Hellas into thy hands; but now, because of the dreams 
whereby I have been made cruel, being assured that 
Orestes no longer looks on the sun, ye will find me hard 
of heart, whoe'er ye be that are come. 

351. And this has been found true — I have perceived it, 
friends : the unfortunate, themselves in evil case, are not >^ 
well-minded to those of better fortunes. But never yet 
came a breeze from Zeus, nor a ferry-boat that through the 


rocks Symplegades brought away Helen here, who was my 
undoing, and Menelaus, that I on them might have had my 
revenge, setting the Aulis here against that yonder, where 
the Danaidae mastering me by force were at the point to 
slay me like a heifer, and my father, who begat me, was 

361. Woe is me ! for I am not unmindful of my troubles 
then, how often did I stretch inj hands towards my sire's 
chin and knees, clinging to him, and speaking thus : "0 
father ! I am made a bride in a shameful bridal at thy 
hand; and, while thou art slaying me, my mother and- 
Argive women now chant me in wedding h^^mns, and all 
the hall is filled by the flute, even while I perish at thy 
hand. That Achilles then was Death, and not Peieus' son, 
whom thou didst put forward as husband to me, and didst 
coDve}^ me by craft on chariot-wheels to a blood-stained 
marriage." But I, my eyes covered with fine veilings, took 
not up my brother in my hands, who now has perished, nor 
joined a kiss with my sister from modesty, for I was to go 
to Peieus' halls ; and many greetiDgs I put from me till 
a future time, thinking to come back again to Argos. 
much enduring one, if thou art dead, from how fair a state, 
from a lot how envied for thy father's sake, art thou fallen 
to ruin, Orestes ! 

380. But I blame the cavilling of the goddess, who, if a 
mortal puts his hand to murder, or even touches impurities 
of childbirth or a corpse, debars him from her altar as 
though polluted, yet herself is pleased with sacrifices of 
slain men. It cannot be that Zeus' bride, Leto, could 
have given birth to so much ignorance. Nay, rather, I 
judge Tantalus' feast to the gods unworthy of belief, that 
they were pleased with feeding on a child ; but I deem that 
the folk here, being themselves manslayers, assign to the 
divinity their evil practices ; for no one of the gods do I 
hold to be base. 

392. Cho. Dark, dark blue meeting places of the sea, 
where lo's gadfly, in its flight from Argos, crossed over the 
inhospitable swell, taking in exchange an Asian land across 
the sea for Europe. Who of men are they that, leaving 
the fair- watered rush-green Eurotas, or Dirce's venerable 


streams, came yea came to that savage soil, where in 
honour of Zeus' daughter mortal blood bedews altars and 
temples pillared around ? 

407. L)id they with plashing, double rows of pine oars 
sail their ship's car over ocean waves before the breezes 
that filled their sails, m eager rivalry to increase wealth 
for their halls? For fond hope comes to the bane of 
mortals, insatiable for men who gain them a weight 
of wealth, wandering over the swell and crossing to 
barbarous cities in vain expectation; but the judgment of 
some misses the time for wealth, but to others riches have 
come even to their hand. 

421. How did they pass the rocks that run together, 
how the sleepless cliffs of the sons of Phineus, racing 
along beside the ocean strand on Amphitrite's surge, 
where bands of fifty maidens, Nereiis' daughters, sing in 
the dance with circling feet, as with sail-filling gales the 
steering oars in their grooves swirl at the stern before 
breezes from the south or the breatlis of Zephyrus; how 
came they over the inhospitable deep to that land that is 
the haunt of seafowl, the white strand, the fair race- 
course of xA.chilles ? 

439. Would that at my mistress' prayers Leda's dear 
(laughter Helen might chance to come, leaving the Trojan 
city, that wreathed around her hair with blood-betokening 
dew she may die at my mistress' hand that bids her throat 
be cut, and may pay a counterpoising penalty ! Most gladly 
of all would we welcome the news, if from Hellas' land 
some one of voyagers had come, stopping the toil of my 
pitiful slavery : for even in dreams I would fain be in my 
home and my ancestral city, to enjoy songs of delight, a 
pleasure shared by the wealthy in company. 

456. But here, their hands fast tied with bonds, the 
pair are coming, the goddess' new offering before the 
altar. Hush, friends ! for the choice first-fruits, in truth, 
of the Hellenes are here drawing nigh for the temple ; 
nor did the oxherd proclaim false tidings. 0, august 
lady ! if this city to thy pleasure offers these to thee, 
accept sacrifices, unholy in Hellenic eyes, which the 
custom among us publicly declares that it gives. 


Miter Attendajs'ts with Orestes and Pylades hound. 

Iph. 467. Q-ood! It must be my first care that the 
goddess' rites be duly performed. Loose the strangers' 
hands, that, being sacred, they may be no more in bonds. 
And do ye go within the temple and make ready what is 
right and wonted in such a case. 

{To Orestes and Pylades.) Alas! what mother, then, 
is it that once bore you, who your father, sister, too, if 
there be such an one ? — how noble are the pair of whom 
she will be bereft and brotherless ! Who knows on whom 
such unkind fate will fall? For aU the doings of the gods 
creep on unseen, and no one knows any evil that may 
come; for fortune leads men astray to what is hard to 

Whence in the world come ye, unhappy strangers? 
Since over a long distance, indeed, did ye sail to this land, 
and long will ye be severed from your homes being in the 
world below, even for ever. 

482. Or. Wh}' lamentest thou thus and art pained 
over the woes coming to us two, lady, whosoe'er thou art ? 
Noways do I count him wise, whoever, when about to die, 
seeks to overcome with pity the dread of perishing (nor 
whoso grieves that Hades is near) , hopeless of safety : 
since two woes he knits together out of one, and is con- 
victed of folly, yet dies none the less. Now fortune we 
must let alone ; but for us sing thou no dirge ; for the 
sacrifices here we know and recognise. 

492. Iph. Which then of you two, mentioned here by 
name, is called Pylades ? This, first, I mean to learn. 

Or. He stands here, if this is at all to your pleasure to 

Iph. Of what Hellenic country born a citizen ? 

Or. And what wouldst thou gain, lady, by learning 
this ? 

Iph. Are you two brothers from one mother ? 

Or. In fondness, yes ; but we are not brothers by birth, 

Iph. And on thee what manner of name did the father 
that begat thee set ? 


500. Or. Truly my name should have been " Ill-fated." 

Iph. This I ask not ; set that name down to fortune. 

Or. Dying nameless, I shall not be mocked. 

Iph. But why dost grudge this ? Or art thou so proud ? 

Or. 'Tis my body thou shalt sacrifice, not my name. 

Iph. Nor wilt thou tell what city is thine ? 

Or. No, for thou seekest a thing of no profit to one 
about to die. 

Iph. But what stays thee from granting me this favour? 

Or. Renowned Argos for my native land I boast. 

Iph. By the gods, stranger, art thou indeed sprung 
from thence ? 

610. Or. From Mycenae, which once was prosperous. 

Iph. And a fugitive didst thou sail from thy country, or 
by what manner of chance ? 

Or. Yes. I am a fugitive in some fashion verily, not 
willing and yet willing. 

Iph. And yet, in that thou art from Argos, much longed 
for was thy coming. 

Or. Not by me, but if by thee, His thy care. 

Iph. Wilt thou tell me something of what I wish ? 

Or. So shall I leave my main theme, my own ill 

Iph. Troy perhaps thou know'st of, about which there 
is talk everywhere. 

Or. Would I had n^ver known it, nay nor even seen it 
in a vision I 

Iph. They say that it is no more, and has found its 
end by the spear. 

520. Or. Yes; it is so. Nor did ye hear things un- 

Iph. And has Helen gone back again to the house of 
Menelaus ? 

Or. She is there, coming with ill-luck truly to one of 
my kin. 

Iph. But where is she ? For to me too she owes ere now 
some amends. 

Or. At Sparta she dwells with her former consort. 

Iph. Oh ! hateful sight to Hellenic eyes, and not to me 


Or. I, too, in truth tasted the fruit of her marriages. 

Iph. And did the Achaeans' return come to pass, as it is 
reported ? 

Ok. Are all included in thy question ? 

Iph. Yes; for before thou diest, I wish to reap this 

530. Or. Examine me, since thou desirest this, and I 
will speak. 

Iph, Did one Calchas, a seer, go back again from Troy ? 

Or. He has perished, as was said among the men of 

Iph. august mistress, how well! Why, what of 
Laertes' offspring? 

Or. He has not yet returned home, but is living, so runs 
the tale. 

Iph. May he perish, and find no return to his country ! 

Or. Make no ill prayer against him : all his fortunes 
are amiss. 

Iph. And the son of Thetis the Nereid, is he still living? 

Or. He is not. Vainly he entered on wedlock in Aulis. 

Iph. Yes ; for it was a deceitful one, as, at least, they 
say who suffered from it. 

540. Or. Who'er art thou ? How well thou askest after 
the news from Hellas ! 

Iph. I am from thence; when yet a child I was lost. 

Or. Eightly then thou would st fain know what is there, 

Iph. But what of the general, who they say was high in 
fortune ? 

Or. Who ? Name him, for he whom I know was not of 
the fortunate. 

Iph. Atreus' son he was called, one Agamemnon, the 

Or. I know not. Leave that tale, lady. 

Iph. Say not so, by the gods; but tell me, that I may 
be cheered, stranger. 

Or. He is dead, wretched man, and besides has brought 
another to ruin. 

Iph. He is dead? By manner of mishap? Ah me, 
unhappy ! 


550. Or. But why didst thou utter this groan ? Surely 
he had naught to do with thee ? 

Iph. His happiness, his former happiness, I mourn. 

Or. Ay, for terribly has he departed, slaughtered by his 

Iph. Oh, needing floods of tears is she who slew and he 
who was slain. 

Or. Cease, and question no further. 

Iph. Thus much, at least : whether the miserable man's 
wife is alive? 

Or. She is not. A son whom she bore — he slew her. 

Iph. house utterly confounded ! Tell me with what 
intent, avowedly. 

Or. Taking vengeance on her for his father's murder. 

Iph. Alas ! How well he exacted an ill but just 
requital I 

560. Or. But not with heaven is he prosperous, just 
though he be. 

Ifh. And leaves Agamemnon, in his home, offspring 
beside '? 

Or. Yes ; he has left one girl, Electra. 

Iph. But say : is there any talk of a slaughtered 

Or. No, none, except that being dead she does not see 
the light. 

Iph. Miserable is she and the father who slew her. 

Or. She perished for an evil woman's thankless sake. 

Iph. And lives the dead father's son at Argos? 

Ok. He lives, poor wretch, nowhere and everywhere. 

Iph. False dreams, farewell. Ye were nought after all. 

570. Or. Nor are the deities who are called wise less 
false than winged dreams. Great confusion there is among 
divine and mortal things alike ; but in one thing alone is 
he grieved, that not from being foolish, but for hearkening 
to the words of seers, he has perished as he has perished 
in the eyes of those who know. 

Cho. Alas! alas! And what of us, and of our dear 
sires ? Live they ? Or live they not ? Who can say ? 

578. Iph. Hear ; for I have arrived at a certain plan, 
speeding your profit, strangers, and mine too ; and what is 
iph. t. 10 


well would so best be done, if the same deed is pleasing to 
all. -Wouldst thou be willing, if I saved thee, to go to 
Argos for me, and give some message to my friends there, 
and to bear a tablet, which some captive wrote in pity for 
me, not deeming my hand his murderer, but that by the 
law he died, for that the goddess thinks these deeds 
just? For I had no one who could go and bear news to 
Argos again, no one who arriving safely should convey my 
letters to one of my friends. But do thou, for thou seemest 
not ill-born, and thou knowest of Mycenae and those whom 
I too would have thee know, be saved even thou, taking 
thy life, no mean reward in respect of these trifling letters. 
But let this man, since the state enforces it, become a 
sacrifice to the goddess, being parted from thee. 

597. Or. Well dost thou say all else, save one thing, 
stranger lady ; for that this man should be slaughtered is 
to me a grievous burden. For I am he who started the 
voyage of these calamities ; but he sails with me for my 
troubles' sake. It is not just, therefore, that at the price 
of his destruction I should find favour and myself escape 
from misfortune. But thus let it fall out. Give him 
the tablet, for he will convey it to Argos, that it may be 
well with thee ; and let who will slay me. Most base it is 
if anyone plunge his friends' cause into calamity and 
himself abide in safety. But he is a friend whom I would 
have see the light no less than myself. 

609. Iph. noble spirit, surely thou art sprung from 
some noble stock and art a right true friend to thy friends ! 
Such may he be, the man who has been left of all my 
kindred ! For not even I, strangers, am without a brother, 
save that I see him not. But since thou wishest it thus, I 
will send this man bearing the tablet, and thou shalt die ; 
but some great eagerness for death possesses thee. 

617. Or. But who will sacrifice me and dare the dread- 
ful deed? 

Irii. I, for I have this duty of worship to the goddess. 

Or. Yea, maiden, 'tis a deed unenviable, and far from 

Iph. Yes ; but I am laid under the necessity, which 
I must observe. 


Or. Wilt thou thyself, a woman, slay men in sacrifice 
with the sword ? 

622. Iph. Nay, but I shall sprinkle lustral water about 
thy hair. 

Or. And who then is the slayer ? if it is meet for me to 
ask this ? 

Iph. Within this house are they who care for this. 

Or. And what manner of tomb will receive me when I 
am dead ? 

Iph. Sacred fire within, and a yawning gulf of rock. 

Or. Alas ! Would that a sister's hand might lay me out ! ^ 

628. Iph. A vain prayer is thine, wretched man, 
whoso'er thou art; for she dwells afar off from this 
barbarian land. Nothwithstanding, since thou art from 
Argos, of what 'tis possible to do indeed I will not omit the 
service. For I will place for thee many an ornament upon 
the tomb, and with yellow oil I will quench thy body, and 
the flower-distilled delight of the tawny mountain-bee I 
will cast on thy pyre. 

636. But I will go and bring the tablet from 
the goddess' temple; howbeit take not the ill-will as 
mine. Guard them, attendants, without chains. Per- 
chauce unlocked for tidings shall I send to Argos to one 
of those dear to me, whom above all I love ; and a tablet 
will report to him that they live whom he thinks to be 
dead, and will tell of joys to be believed. 

643. Cho. I bewail thee, who art consigned to the blood- 
tinged sprinkling of lustrations. 

Or. Why! This is not a thing for pity, but rejoice, 
stranger maidens. 

Cho. But thee we congratulate on thy happy fortune, 
youth, that thou wilt set foot upon thy fatherland. 

Pyl. Verily an unenviable lot for friends, when friends 
are dying ! 

Semi-Cho. I. Ah, heart-rending errand! 

Semi-Cho. II. Alas ! Alas ! thou dost perish. 

Semi-Cho. I. Aiai ! Semi-Cho. II. Aiai ! 

Cho. Which of the two is the victim? For still my 
mind is distraught with conflicting doubts, whether it is 
thou, or rather thou, that in my wailing I am to bemoan. 


Or. Pylades, tell me truly, hast thou had the same 
experience in thought as I ? 

Pyl. I know not ; thou askest me that I cannot answer. 

660. Or. Who is the maiden ? How like a Greek she 
asked us of the toils at Ilium and the Achaeans' return, 
and Calchas, wise in birds of omen, and Achilles' name, 
and the wretched Agamemnon — how she pitied and asked 
me of his wife and children ! The stranger is by birth 
from thence — some Argive woman ; for else she had never 
tried to send a tablet and sought to learn these tidings, 
as though, if Argos prospers, she prospers with it. 

Pyl. Thou hast been but a little before me ; and 
thou art beforehand in saying the same as I except one 
thing : for a king's disasters, let me tell thee, all know who 
have had any intercourse with men. But she discoursed 
also of another matter. 

Or. What ? By putting it into the common stock thou 
wilt comprehend it better. 

674. Pyl. When thou diest it is shameful that I should 
see the light ; as partner with thee I sailed, so it becomes 
me as partner also with thee to die ; for I shall possess a 
name for both cowardice and baseness at Argos and in the 
Phocians' land of many a dell, and shall seem to the many — 
for many are base — by betraying thee to have got safe 
home myself alone, or even to have sought occasion against 
thee when thy house was plague-stricken, and plotted thy 
death for the sake of thy kingdom, for they will say I 
am the husband of the heiress, even thy sister. This then 
I fear and regard with shame, and there is no way for 
me but to be bound, to breathe my last breath with thee 
and to be slaughtered with thee and to have my body 
burnt, being thy friend and fearing blame. 

687. Or. Utter words of good omen! My woes I must 
bear ; and when I may bear single griefs I will not bear 
double. For what thou speakest of as grievous and re- 
l)roachlul is both of these to me, if I shall be the death of 
thee who bearest thy toils with me ; for as regards my own 
lot it is not ill for me, faring as I fare at the hands of the 
gods, to quit life. 

But thou art prosperous, and hast a home unstained 


not plague-stricken, while mine is impious and ill-fated. 
But if thou shouldst be saved, and get children by my 
sister, whom I gave to thee to have to wife, my name 
would live on, nor would my father's house ever be blotted 
out as cliildless. 

699. Nay, go and live on and dwell in my father's 
house. And when thou comest to Hellas, and to Argos, 
city of steeds, by this right hand I charge thee thus : 
both pile a tomb and set on it a monument for me, 
and let my sister give tears and locks of hair to my 
grave. And report how hallowed by blood at the altar 
I perished by the hand of some Argive woman. And 
never betray my sister, seeing forlorn thy new family, 
forlorn my father's house. And fare thee well ; for I have 
found thee dearest of my friends, thou who didst share 
my hunting and my nurture, thou who barest many 
burdens of my ills. 

But Phoebus, seer as he is, deceived me ; and putting 
forth his cunning, drove me as far as might be from 
Hellas through shame at his former prophecies ; to 
him I gave all that was mine and hearkened to his words ; 
and now, after slaying my mother, I find in return ruin for 

716. Pyl. There shall be a tomb for thee, and thy 
sister's bed I will not betray, unhappy friend, since I hold 
thee dear when dead more than while thou lookest on the 

But not yet has the god's uttered oracle destroyed 
thee, though thou standest near to slaughter. But there 
is — yes there is ill-luck beyond measure, which beyond 
measure brings a change whenever it may chance. 

Or. Be silent : thoughts of Phoebus help me nought : 
for here is the lady coming forth from her dwelling. 

725. Iph. (entering with the tablet). Gro ye away, and 
going, make all inside ready for those who are set over 
the slaughter. Here, strangers, are the many-leaved 
foldings of the writing-tablet ; and what I wish besides 
this, hear. No man is the same both in troubles and when 
he passes suddenly from fear to boldness. And I dread 
lest, on returning from this land, he who is about to bear 


this tablet to Argos should count my commissions for 

Ok. What, then, dost thou wish ? On what account art 
thou at a loss ? 

Iph. Let him give me an oath that he will convey these 
writings over sea to Argos, to those of my friends to whom 
I wish to send them. 

Or. Surely thou wilt also give my friend the same 
pledges in return ? 

Iph. What thing to do or refrain from doing ? Speak. 

Or. To send him away from this barbarian land and 
not to slay him. 

740. Iph. A just thing hast thou said; for how otherwise 
could he bear the message ? 

Or. Will the sovereign, too, agree to this? 

Iph. Yes, I will persuade him, and will myself put your 
friend on board the ship. 

Or. {to Pyl.) Swear, and {to Iph.) do thou dictate an 
oath, any that is holy. 

Iph. I will give, he ought to say, this to thy friends. 

Pyl. To thy friends I will give up these writings. 

Iph. And I will send thee safely bej^ond the dark rock. 

Pyl. Whom of the gods dost thoa then invoke to ratify 
these words? 

Iph. Artemis, in whose halls I hold my office. 

Pyl. Yes, and I the king of heaven, awful Zeus. 

Iph. But if thou shouldst forsake thy oath, and wrong me? 

Pyl. May I have no return home ! But what of thee, if 
thou save me not ? 

Iph. Never may I set foot in Argos while I live. 

Pyl. But hear, now, from me a thiug we overlooked. 

Iph. Well, nothing comes amiss, so it be to the purpose. 

Pyl. Make this exception for me : if the ship come to 
harm, and the tablet in the billow is lost to sight along 
witli the cargo, and I come off safe with nothing but my 
life, that this oath be no longer binding. 

759. Iph. But know'st thou what I will do ? for many 
means reach many ends. What is herein and written in 
the tablet's folds I will tell thee orally, so that thou canst 
report all to my friends. For this is on the safe side. If 


indeed thou bring' st the writing safely home, it will tell, 
though silent, what is written here ; but if these writings 
are lost to sight in the sea, by saving thy life thou wilt 
save the message for me. 

Pyl. Well hast thou spoken, both for thy concerns and 
for me. But reveal to whom I must bring these messages 
at Argos, and what I must say in thy name. 

Iph. Tell Orestes, Agamemnon's son : ** She that was 
slaughtered at Aulis sends this behest, Iphigenia, living, 
yet living no more in the eyes of those who dwell 

Or. And where is she ? Is she that was dead come back ? 

Iph. I here whom thou seest : put me not out by talking. 
"Convey me home to Argos, my own brother, before I 
die, from a barbarous land, and remove me from the 
goddess' sacrifices, wherein I hold the office of slaying 

777. Or. Pylades, what shall I say ? In what strange 
hap have we now found ourselves ? 

Iph. " Or I shall prove a curse to thy house, Orestes," 
that thou mayest learn the name by hearing it again a 
second time. 

Pyl. Ye gods ! 

Iph. Why dost thou call upon the gods in my con- 


Pyl. 'Tis naught, but proceed; for I was gone away 
elsewhere. [Perhaps, then, in asking thee questions I 
shall arrive at things untrustworthy.] 

Iph. iSay that the goddess Artemis saved me, and put 
in my place a deer, which my father offered, deeming that 
he had thrust the keen blade into me ; and she settled me 
in this land. These are the messages ; this is what is written 
on the tablets. 

788. Pyl. 0, thou who hast bound me with oaths easy 
to keep and hast sworn most excellently, no long time 
will I hold back, but we will make fast and sure the oath 
that I swore. {To Or.) Look, I bring thee a tablet, and 
deliver it, Orestes, from thy sister here ! 

Or. I receive it ; and letting go the letter's folds, I will 
take my pleasure not in words first. 0, sister dearest to. 


me, though, astounded, yet clasping thee with a scarce- 
trusting arm, I will haste to delight, having learnt a tale 
so wonderful to me. 

798. Oho. Stranger, not rightly dost thou defile the 
goddess' handmaid, casting thy hands about robes for- 
bidden to the touch. 

Or. thou, own sister, and born of the same father 
Agamemnon, do not turn away from me now thou hast 
a brother, though not thiniiing that thou wouldst ever 
find one. 

Iph. I have thee for my brother? Wilt thou not cease 
talking ? Why, Argos is full of him, and Nauplia, 

Or. 'Tis not there thy brother is, poor soul ! 

Iph. Nay, but did the Laconian daughter of Tyn- 
dareus really bear thee ? 

Or. Yes, to the son of Pelops' son ; from him am I born. 

Iph. What sayest thou ? Hast thou any token of these 
things for me ? 

Or. I have ; ask somewhat from the story of my father's 

810. Iph. Then it behoves thee indeed to speak, and me 
to learn. 

Or. 1 will tell thee first by hearsay from Electra this. 
Thou mind'st a strife that arose between Atreus and 

Iph. I have heard it, what time there was a strife about 
a golden lamb. 

Or. Dost thou mind, then, that thou didst weave this 
story in webs fine- wrought ? 

Iph. 0, dearest, thou art wheeling near my thoughts. 

Or. And a picture in the web, the shifting of the sun ? 

Iph. I wove this figure also in fine thread-plaits. 

Or. And did'st thou receive bath- water from my mother 
to take to Aulis ? 

Iph. I mind it, for the marriage, being so good a one, 
did not deprive me thereof. 

820. Or. Well, then, thou mindest giving thy hair to 
be taken home for thy mother ? 

Iph. Yea, for a memorial for the tomb in place of my 


Or. Now the tokens which I saw myself, these will I 
tell : the ancient lance of our father Pelops in our home, 
that he brandished and so won the virgin of Pisa, 
Hippodamia, by killing Oenomaus — a lance hidden in thy 
maiden chambers. 

Iph. 0, most dear one, nought else, for thou art most 
dear : I have thee Orestes, the well-beloved, from Argos, 
from thy native earth, my dear one — 

831. Or. And I thee, tlie dead, as is thought. And tears 
and joyful weeping bedew thine eyes, and in like manner 

Iph. — whom still a babe I left, left young in a nurse's 
arms, young in the house. 0, my life, thou that hast met 
with fortune too good for words, what am I to say ? This 
has befallen us beyond all wonders, and far in advance of 

841. Or. Henceforth may we have happiness together ! 

Iph. a strange pleasure have I gained, my friends ; and 
I fear lest from my hands he should fly aloft to the sky 
and escape me. Cyclopean hearth ! my country ! 
Ah dear Mycenae, thanks do I feel for his life, thanks for 
his rearing, because thou didst rear up for me my brother 
here — a light to our home. 

Or. In our birth, indeed, are we happy; but in our 
fortunes, my sister, was our life framed for sorrow. 

Iph. I remember to my misery the time when my father, 
with miserable intent, laid the knife upon my neck. 

Or. Ah me ! For methinks though I was absent yet I 
see thee there. 

Iph. When without the nuptial song, my kinsman, I 
was being led to Achilles' pretended marriage couch. 
And beside the altar were tears and groans. Alas ! alas 
for the lustrations there ! 

862. Or. I too cry, ah me ! at the hardy deed my 
father dared. 

Iph. To a fatherless lot, to a fatherless lot was I des- 
tined ; but from one mishap another arises by the chance 
some deity deals out. 

Or. Yes, if thou hadst cut o££ thy brother, wretched 
sister ! 


Iph. unhappy in my dreadful daring ! Dreadful 
things I dared ; dreadful things I dared ! Ah. me ! my 
kinsman, and but by a little didst thou escape unholy 
destruction by slaughter at my hands. And the end that 
will follow upon it all — what will it be ? What chance 
will befall me herewith ? What passage shall I achieve 
for thee back again, and send thee away from a city of 
murder to thy native country of Argos, before the sword 
draws near thy Hfe-blood ? This, this is thy task, wretched 
soul, to devise. Whether shall it be on dry land, not by a 
ship, but by the quick pulse of feet ? 

886. Thou wilt come near to death in that case, passing 
through barbarous tribes and along roads that are no 
roads. Yet, through the dark rocks of the strait, long 
are the paths for flight in ships. Ah wretched, wretched 
soul ! Who, then, unhappy man, or god or mortal, or what 
unexpected chance, shall work a passage out of this impasse 
and release from troubles for the only two of Atreus' 

900. Cho. Among marvels and bejond the bounds of 
fables are these things that I have seen with my own eyes, 
and shall tell of not from hearsay. 

Pyl. That friends, when they are come into the sight of 
friends, Orestes, should throw their arms about each other 
is seemly ; but, thou must cease from pitiful cries, and 
come to this thought too, how we may win the glorious 
light of safety, and fare out of the barbarian land. For 
this is the way of wise men, not to forsake present fortune 
when they have found their opportunity, and seize irre- 
levant delights. 

Oh. Well hast thou spoken ; but methinks fortune cares 
for this as well as we, and if a man is prompt in spirit, 
the heavens aid is more like to be strong. 

Iph. But at least thou wilt not stay me nor debar me 
from my purpose to ask first what fate in life Electra has 
found, for all I can learn will be dear to me. 

915. Or. 'Tis with this man she dwells, owning a happy 

Iph. And your friend — of what country is he, and 
whose son ? 


Or. Strophius, the Phocian, is well known as his father. 

Iph. Yes ; this must be the son of Atreus' daughter, my 
kinsman ? 

Ob. Yes ; thy cousin, the only undoubted friend to me. 

Iph. This man as yet was not when my father would 
have slain me. 

Ob,. He was not ; for Strophius was long child- 

Iph. Hail, I greet thee, husband of my sister ! 

Or. Yes ; and my saviour, not my kinsman only ! 

Iph. But the dreadful deeds about our mother — how 
didst thou dare them ? 

Or. Let us be silent about them : I was taking vengeance 
for my father. 

Iph. And for what cause was she the slayer of her 
husband ? 

Or. Let pass our mother's deeds, not even for thee is it 
good to hear them, 

Iph. I am silent. So Argos now looks to thee ? 

Or. Menelaus is lord ; 1 am an exile from my native 

Iph. It cannot be that my uncle has flouted the plague- 
stricken house ? 

Or. No ; but dread of the Erinyes drives me from the 

Iph. Was this, then, the madness which here also thou 
wast said to suffer, even upon the shore ? 

Or. Yes ; we were seen, though not now for the first 
time, in sad plight. 

Iph. I understand, for our mother's sake the goddesses 
were harrying thee. 

Or. Ay, so as to put a bloody bit in my mouth. 

Iph. But say, why didst thou then guide thy steps to 
this land ? 

Or. Bidden by Phoebus' oracles did I come. 

Iph. To work what purpose? Utterable, or buried in 

939. Or. I will tell thee. And this is the beginning of 
many toils for me. When the crime about my mother 
that we speak not of had been accomplished by me, by the 


pursuit of the Erinyes I was driven an exile, until 
Loxias directed my feet at last to Athens, to stand my trial 
on the charges of the unnamed goddesses. For there is a 
holy tribunal, which, men say, Zeus once set up for Ares 
for some defilement of his hands. 

947. And when I came thither at first, indeed, no one 
of strangers willingly received me, as a man hated by the 
gods ; but they who felt shame yielded me a stranger's 
fare at a table alone, though being under the same house- 
roof ; but by their silence they contrived that I should be 
barred from converse also, that I might be set apart from 
their feasting and drinking, and into a separate vessel 
they filled for all an equal measure of the draught of 
Bacchus, and so took their pleasure. And I did not 
presume to question the strangers, but I bore my pain in 
silence, and seemed to mark it not, groaning deeply, be- 
cause I was a mother's murderer. And I hear that my 
unhappy plight has been made a festal rite for the Athe- 
nians, and that still the custom remains for Pallas' folk to 
hold in honour the vessel tliat holds the measure of a pitcher. 

961. But when I had come to Ares' hill, and stood for 
trial, I laying hold on one block, but the other she who 
was elder of the Erinyes, after I had spoken and heard 
my accusers respecting my mother's blood, Phoebus saved 
me, being my witness ; and Pallas with her arm counted 
off the votes for me, and I came off a winner in the trial 
for murder. 

As many therefore as rested content with the decision, 
marked for themselves a temple to have hard by the 
tribunal itself; but as many of the Erinyes as did 
not submit to the decision, with restless racings kept 
driving me on for ever, until I came again to Phoebus' 
holy plain, and stretclied before the shrine, not tasting 
food, I swore I would there cut life short and die if 
Phoebus would not save me, who was my undoing. 
Thereupon Phoebus uttered a voice from the golden 
tripod, and sent me hither to get the heaven-fallen 
image and to establish it in the land of Athens. 

979. But the deliverence which he appointed for me, do 
thou help me to gain; for if we obtain the goddess's 


image, I shall cease from my fits of madness, and convey 
thee in a many-oared bark, and will set thee in Mycenae 
again. But beloved ! sister dear ! deliver thy father's 
house, and get me safe away ; since all my cause is lost, 
and that of Pelops' race, if we get not the goddess' 
heaven-sent image. 

Cho. Some dreadful wrath of the gods hath seethed up 
against the seed of Tantalus, and leads it through 

989. Iph. The eager desire have I long had before thou 
camest hither to be at Argos and to look on thee, my 
kinsman. But I wish even what thou dost, to remove 
thee from troubles and, for I feel no wrath at him who 
slew me, to build up again my father's plague -stricken 
house. So should I free my hand from thy slaughter, 
aud save our house beside ; but I fear how am I to escape 
the notice of the goddess and of the prince when he finds 
empty the stone pedestal of the image. Surely I shall 
die, what reason have I to give ? 

But if these two things be done as one and at one time, 
if thou both gain the image, and take me on a ship with 
goodly stern, the adventure becomes glorious ; but parted 
from the image I perish indeed, while thou, arranging 
well thy lot, wilt accomplish thy return. Verily I 
shrink not at all not even if needs be that I die, if I can 
save thee ; for it cannot be but that a man is missed out 
of the house when he has died, but a woman's power is 

1007. Or. I would not be my mother's murderer and 
thine too. Suf&cieut is her blood. But with thee I should 
wish to live, and in death to meet an equal lot. (But I 
will take thee, if I do not myself fall here, to our home ; 
or dying, I will abide with thee.) Now hear my decision: 
if this was hard for Artemis to brook, how would Loxias 
have given the divine command to carry the goddess' image 
to Pallas' town ? . . . And to look upon thy face ? For by 
grouping all these thoughts into one I have hope to gain 
my return. 

Iph. How then can it come about that we ma}^ 
both not die, and get what we wish? JFor herein our 


return to our home is weak ; and here matter for counsel 
lies before us. 

1020. Or. Should we not be able then to slay the 
prince ? 

Iph. a dreadful deed is this thou hast named, for 
strangers to kill their host ! 

Or. But if it will save thee and me, it must be risked. 

Iph. Thou couldst not, but I laud thy readiness. 

Or. But what if thou wert to hide me stealthily in this 
temple ? 

Iph. Meanest thou that, having gained the darkness, we 
might perchance escape ? 

Or. Yes; for night is thieves' time, but truth's the 

Iph. Within are guards of the temple, whose notice we 
shall not escape. 

Or. Ah me ! we are undone — how shall we be delivered? 

Iph. Methinks I have a new contrivance. 

Or. Of what sort? Share thy thought with me, that I 
too may learn it. 

Iph. I will use thy troubles as a device. 

Or. Ay, for women are clever at devising wiles. 

1033. Iph. I shall say that thou hast come from Argos, 
a mother's murderer. 

Or. Make use of my ills if thou art like to gain thereby. 

Iph. We shall say that it is not lawful to sacrifice thee 
to the goddess. 

Or. Alleging what cause? for I suspect something. 

Iph. That thou art not pure, but I shall give to slaughter 
that which is holy. 

Or. How then is the goddess' image the more like to be 
captured ? 

Iph. I shall be fain to purify thee in ocean's springs. 

Or. There stiU remains in the temple the image for 
which we have made our voyage. 

Iph. That too, I shall say, I desire to wash, since 
thou didst touch it. 

Or. Where, tell me ? Meanest thou the inflowing of the 
wet sea ? 

Iph. Where thy ship rides with hempen bridles. 



Or. And wilt thou or another bear the image in his 
hands ? 

Iph. I shall ; for to touch it is holy for me alone. 

Ok. And Pjlades, our friend here, to what part of the 
deed of blood will he be assigned ? 

Iph. He shall be spoken of as having the same stain as 
thou on his hands. 

Or. And wilt thou do this unknown to the king, or with 
his knowledge ? 

Iph. By persuading him by my words; for I should 
not else escape him. 

Or. Well the ship at least with her well-measured beat 
of oars is hard by. 

Iph. It must be thy care that all else shall go well. 

1052. Or. One thing alone we lack, that these women 
help in hiding this plan. Come, entreat them, and find 
persuasive words ; sure, a woman hath power for arousing 
pity, and the rest, perhaps, will all turn out well. 

Iph. 0, dearest women, to you I look, and my fortunes 
are in your hands, either to fare well, or to be naught, and 
to be bereft of my country, and of a dear brother and most 
dear kinsman ! 

1060. And first, indeed, let this begin my speech. We 
ate women, a sex of kindly mind to one another, and most 
faithful to preserve matters of common concern. Keep 
silence for us, and work out with us our escape. An 
honourable thing of a truth it is, to have a loyal tongue. 
Now ye behold that one chance holds in its grasp thi-ee 
lives most dear — either a return to their native land, or to 
die. But I, when delivered, that thou too mayst perchance 
share my good fortune, will bring thee safe to Hellas. 
Nay, by thy right hand I entreat thee — and thee, too — and 
thee by thy dear cheek and kisses, and by those most dear at 
home [mother, and father and children, if any have them]. 

What say ye ? Who of you says ay ? or who refuses this 
service ? Speak. For, if ye approve not my words, both I 
am undone and my unhappy brother. 

1075. Cno. Take heart, dear mistress, and only save 
thyself ; for by me all things shall be kept in silence — 
great Zeus be my witness — wherein thou chargest me. 


Iph. a blessing on you for your words, and may ye be 
liappy ! Thy task it is at once, and thine, to go into the halls ; 
for straightway will the lord of this land be here enquiring 
whether the sacrifice of the strangers has been accom- 
plished. \_£xeunt Obestes and Pylades. 

Thou august queen, who at Aulis' bays didst deliver me 
from a dread father's murderous hand, now also deliver 
me and these ; else will the utterance of Loxias' lips find 
credence no more among men by thy doing. But with 
gracious mind fare forth from a foreign land to Athens ; 
for here it becomes thee not to dwell, when thou mayst 
occupy a city blessed of heaven. \_Exit Iphigenia. 

1089. Cho. Bird, that along the ocean's rocky ridges, 
halcyon, that singest a dirge over thy fate, a cry well known 
to those who know how that thou ever hymnest thy spouse 
in thy strains, I match my laments with thine, I that 
would be a bird, but am wingless, longing for the assemb- 
lies of the Hellenes, longing for Artemis, goddess of child- 
birth, who dwells beside Oynthus' hill, and the soft-tressed 
palm, and the full- sprouting bay, and the sacred shoot of 
gray-green olive dear to Latona's travail, and the lake that 
rolls its water in a ring where the tuneful swan waits upon 
the Muses. 

1106. Ah ! the many streams of tears that fell upon my 
cheeks when, as our bulwarks were broken down, I was 
carried away on board their ships, by the oars and lances 
of our f oemen ! And by way of golden traffic I went on a 
journey to a strange land, where I serve the virgin 
priestess of the deer-slaying goddess, even the daughter of 
Agamemnon, and the altars where no sheep are sacrificed, 
envjdng him who is ill-starred all his life ; for in sore 
straits he grows not weary, since he is a foster-brother to 
ill-fortune from of old ; but to be brought to evil plight 
after good fortune is for mortals a life of grievous 

1123. And thee, indeed, august mistress, an Argive bark 
with fifty oars will take home ; and with its wliistle the 
wax-bound reed of mountain Pan will urge on the oars ; 
and Phoebus the seer, lord of the music of the seven- 
stringed lute, will conduct them to the Athenians' bright 


land, making melody. But having left me here, thou wilt 
go with the foaming oars, and with the breeze the sheets 
will spread out the sails upon the forestays at the prow, 
above the bows of the ship as she speeds swiftly. 

1138. Oh, might I go on a bright course, where travels the 
fair light of the sun! and over my own bowers might I cease 
plying my wings folding them behind me ! And oh! might 
I stand in the dances, where also as a bridesmaid at fair- 
seeming weddings, whirling my foot away from my dear 
mother's side to the joyous bands of my companions, 
hasting into friendlv rivalry of charms, and into strife of 
rich and graceful ornament, throwing my many-coloured 
veil and curls around my cheeks, I used to shade them ! 

Unter Thoas. 

1152. Thoas. Where is the warden of these halls, the 
Greek lady ? Hath she already cut the first lock from the 
strangers ? Are their bodies blazing with fire within the 
holy precincts ? 

Cho. Here she is, who will tell thee all plainly, 

Enter Iphigenia. 

Tho. Ah ! Why, daughter of Agamemnon, dost thou 
lift from the inviolable pedestal this image of the goddess 
in thine arms ? 

1159. Iph. King ! stay thy foot where thou art in the 

Tho. Why ? What strange thing is there, Iphigenia, 
in the temple ? 

Iph. Abomination ! Fori utter this word for religion's 

Tho. What new thing dost thou preface with this cry? 
Tell it forth plainly. 

Iph. Unclean do I find the victims ye caught, king ! 

Tho. What is it that told thee of this ? Or dost thou 
tell of a conjecture? 

Iph. The image of the goddess turned backwards from 
its place. 

iph. T. 11 


Tho. Of its own motion ? Or did an earthquake turn 

Iph. Of its own motion ; and it shut fast the sight of its 

Tho. And the cause, what is it? Or is it the pollution 
of the strangers ? 

Iph. As thou sayest, nought else; for they twain have 
done dreadful deeds. 

Tho. Can it be that they have killed some foreigner on 
the shore ? 

Iph. 'Tis of their home, the murder-stain they came with. 

Tho. What? For I have fallen into a desire of learning 
the tale. 

Iph. Together with the sword they laid their mother low. 

Tho. Apollo! Not even among barbarians would any 
man have ventured it. 

Iph. They were chased by pursuit from all Hellas. 

Tho. Is it for this, tell me, thou bearest the image out of 

Iph. Yes, into the holy air, that I may remove it from 
defilement of blood. 

Tho. And the pollution of the strangers, how did'st 
thou learn it ? 

Iph. I put questions when the goddess' image turned 
away backwards. 

1180. Tho. Hellas reared thee to be a clever maiden, 
since thou didst perceive it right well. 

Iph. And but now they let down a pleasant bait for my 

Tho. Did they report some of the news from Argos as a 
lure for thee ? 

Iph. They said that Orestes my only brother, has good 

Tho. Assuredly, that thou mightest deliver them through 
delight at their tidings. 

Iph. Yes ; and that my father lives and fares well. 

Tho. But thou didst lean to the goddess' side naturally. 

Iph. Yes, in my hate of all Hellas, which was my 

Tho. What then are we to do, say, about the strangers ? 


Iph. Needs must that we respect the law that is ordained. 

Tho. Are not thy lustral waters and thy knife employed ? 

Iph. With pure cleansings first I intend to lave them. 

Tho. With springs of water or with the sea-dew? 

Iph. The sea washes away all human ills. 

Tho. So at least in more holy guise they will fall in 
lionoiir of the goddoss. 

Iph. Yes, and mine own part too will thus be better. 

Tho. Does not the billow dash up close to the temple? 

Iph. a lonely spot we need ; for we shall perform other 

Tho. Take them where thou wish est ; I love not to look 
upon forbidden things. 

1199. Iph. I must purify also the image of the goddess. 

Tho. Yes, so surely as the stain of a mother's murder 
has stricken it. 

Iph. For else had I not lifted it from the pedestal. 

Tho. Just is thy devoutness and thy forethought. 

Iph. Thou knowest what I would fain have done ? 

Tho. Thine it is to signify this. 

Iph. Lay bonds upon the strangers. 

Tho. Wliy ! whither could they flee from thee ? 

Iph, Of honour Hellas knows nought. 

Tho. Go for the bonds, attendants. 

Iph. And let them also bring out the strangers hither. 

Tho. This shall be. 

Iph. First covering their heads with robes. 

Tho. In face of the sun's flame. 

Iph. And send with me some of thy followers. 

Tho. These shall accompany thee. 

Iph. And send someone to bear news to the city — 

Tho. What shall they say? 

Iph. — that all abide in their dwellings. 

Tho. Lest they come in the way of the murder-staiu ? 

Iph. Yes ; for all such are polluted. 

Tho. Gro thou and give the word. 

Iph That no one comes near to view. 

Tho. Eight well thou carest for the city. 

Iph. Yes, and for those of my friends for whom it is 
most right. 

36 EumpiDES. 

Tho. This thou saidst with thought of me. 

[Iph. And with good reason. 

Tho. As with good reason all the city marvels at thee.] 

Iph. And do thou, abiding here in front of the shrine 
in the goddess' honour, — 

Tho. What thing am I to do ? 

Iph. — purify the chamber with a brand. 

Tho. That it may be purified when thou euterest in at 
thy return ? 

Iph. Yes ; and at the moment the strangers pass out- 
side — 

Tho. What should I do ? 

Iph. — put a covering before thine eyes. 

Tho. That I do not catch pollution ? 

Iph. And if I seem to linger too long — 

Tho. For this what limit have I? 

Iph. — do not wonder at all. 

Tho. Perform the goddess' rites at leisure perfectly. 

Iph. Would that this purification may fall out as I wish! 

Tho. I join in thy prayer. 

Enter Orestes and Pylades. 
1222. Iph. Here, then, I see already coming out of the 
temple the strangers and the goddess' array, and the new- 
born lambs, that with blood I may wash away the blood 
of pollution; and I behold the torch's gleam and all other 
offerings that I prescribed as a purification for the strangers 
and the goddess. And out of the way of this pollution do 
I bid the citizens keep, if anyone either being the temple's 
doorkeeper keeps his hands clean for the gods, or purposes 
to tie the knot of wedlock, or is weighed down with child- 
birth ; flee, remove yourselves afar, lest this pollution light 
on anyone. virgin queen, Zeus and Leto's child, if I 
wash away these men's guilt of murder and offer sacrifice 
where 'tis due, thou shalt dwell in a pure abode, and we 
shall be fortunate ; and the rest though I speak it not, 
nevertheless I reveal it to the gods who know the more, 
and to thee, goddess ! 

[^Exeunt Iphtgenia, Orestes and Pylades with attendants, 
left, TuoAS enters the Temple. 


1234. Cho. Fairborn is the offspring of Leto, whom she 
bore of old in Delos' fertile plains, with golden hair and 
skilled in the lyre and in straight shooting with the bow 
wherein he delights, and brought him yet a babe from the 
seaborne ridge, leaving her famed childing-])lace for the 
mother of gushing streams, Parnassus' peak that holds 
revel for Dionysus; where the dark-hued dragon with 
streaked bjiek, gleaming in bronze amid the shady leafy 
bay. Earth's monstrous prodigy, erst guarded Earth's 
oracle. Him still, yes, still a babe, still in thy dear 
mother's arms leaping up thou didst slay, Phoebus, 
and didst come to preside over the divine oracles, and on 
golden tripod dost thou sit on a throne that cannot lie, 
flistributing to mortals thy oracle of things divine from 
beneath the shrine, dwelling near Castalia's streams, 
holding earth's central hall. 

1259. And when Apollo went and removed from the 
seat of divine oracles Gaea's daughter Themis. Earth 
brought forth night visions of dreams which on the darksome 
couches of slumber upon the ground told to many a man 
both the fast and the future, even all that was to be ; and 
Gaea took away from Phoebus the honour of his oracles 
from jealousy for her daughter. But with swift foot 
hieing to Olympus, the lord twined his child's hand on the 
throne of Zeus, praying him to take away from the halls 
of Pytho the wrath of the Earth-goddess and the voices of 
nightly visions. And Zens smiled, because the child had 
come forthwith set upon gaining a worship teeming with 
gold; and he shook his liair in assent thereto and checked 
the nightly dreams, and took from mortals nigl it-inspired 
forgetfulness, and restored his honours to Loxias, and on 
the throne with its crowds of strangers he restored con- 
fidence to mortals by the strains of oracles. 

I^nter Messexger. 

1284. Messexger. wardens of the temple and priests 
who minister at the altar, whither is Thoas, king of this 
land, departed ? Fold back the well-clamped gates, and 
call forth from these halls the lord of the land. 


Cho. What is afoot, if it is right for me to speak 
unbidden ? 

Mess. The two youths are departed and gone by the 
scheming of Agamemnon's daughter, fleeing from this 
land and taking the awful image in the bosom of a Greek 

Cho. Ill to believe is the tale thou tellest ; but he whom 
thou wishest to see, the king of the country, is gone, sped 
out of the temple. 

Mess. Whither? For he must needs know what is 

Cho. We know not; but go and follow him where 
thou shalt find him and report these tales. 

Mess. Lo, how untrustworthy is the race of women ! 
Ye, too, have a share in the deed. 

Cho. Art thou mad? And what have we to do with 
the strangers' escape ? Begone to the rulers' doors with 
all thy speed. 

1302. Mess. No, not before the guardian tells me this 
word, whether the chief ruler of the land is within or not. 
Ho, there ! loose the bolts ! I speak to you within ; and 
tell my lord that I am here at the gates announcing a 
budget of new troubles. 

Enter Thoas from the temple. 

Tho. Who sets up a shout around the goddess' abode 
here, battering the doors and sending a din within ? 

Mess. These women were giving out, being fain to 
drive me from the house, that thou wast without, and thou 
wast after all within the house. 

Tno. What gain did they look for therein, or pursue ? 

1312. Mess, Hereafter I will reveal these women's 
wiles; but do thou hear what is even now at hand : the 
maiden who here attended on the altars, Iphigenia, is 
gone forth from the land with the strangers, taking the 
goddess' awful image, and the purifications were but a 

Tho. How sayst thou? What gale of fortune moved 


Mess. She was striving to save Orestes ; for herein thou 
wilt marvel. 

Tho. What! Orestes! Surely not him of whom 
TjTidareus' daughter is the mother ? 

Mess. Him whom the goddess caused to be consecrated 
at these altars. 

Tho. Oh, wonderful, what greater name can I rightly give? 

Mess. Turn not thy mind to that, but hear me ; and 
looking clearly, while thou clearly hearest, devise a pur- 
suit that shall overtake the strangers. 

Tho. Speak, for thou hast said well ; for 'tis no near 
voyage along whose course they flee, that they should 
escape my spear. 

1327. Mess. When we came to the sea-cUSs, where 
Orestes' ship was anchored in secret, Agamemnon's 
daughter motioned us whom thou didst send with her 
holding the strangers' bonds to stand afar o£f, as in act 
to offer the mystic flame and purification for which she 
came, while she alone walked behind holding in her 
hands the strangers' bonds. And these things were 
suspicious, 'tis true; yet did they satisfy thy servants, 
king. And after a while, that they might truly seem to 
us to be doing something of import, she raised a cry, and 
kppt chanting foreign strains in her witchcraft, as if, 
forsooth, washing away the blood-stain. 

1339. But when we had been sitting a long time, 
misgivings came over us that the strangers, getting loose, 
might kill her and be gone as runaways ; but from fear to 
see what we ought not, we sat still in silence ; but at last 
all had the same mind to go where they were, although 

1345. And there we see' the hull of a Greek ship, its 
broadside winged with well-fitting oar-blades, and fifty 
sailors with their oars on the thole-pins and the young 
men, free from bonds, standing astern of the ship. And 
with poles they were steadying the prow, and others were 
fastening the anchor from the bulwarks, and others 
hastened to bring a ladder as tliey hauled in the stern- 
cables through their hands, and, putting it into the sea, 
were letting it down to the strangers. 


1354. But we, recking not what might befall when we 
saw their crafty wiles, kept hold upon the stranger 
lady and the stern cables, and through the rudder ports we 
essayed to pull out the steering oars of the high-pooped 
ship, i And words kept passing : "On what pretence are 
you stealing and carrjdng over sea images and priestesses 
from our land? Whose son, and who art thou, that art 
smuggling the lady here from our country ? " And he said, 
''Orestes, her brother, that thou mayst know Agamemnon's 
son ; I am conveying home my sister here, now I have won 
her whom I lost from our home." But none the less did 
we cling to the stranger lady, and strove to force her to 
come with us to thee ; and from this arose these dreadful 
blows on my cheeks. For both they had no steel in their 
hands, and we too none ; but blows from fists came 
crashing in, both the youths at once aimed their feet at our 
ribs and on our hearts, so that at one moment our limbs 
joined issue and gave in. And signed with dreadful 
seal-marks, we made in flight for the cliff's brow, some 
having bleeding wounds on their head, others in their 
eyes; and after posting ourselves on hillocks, we kept 
fighting with more caution, and throwing stones; but 
bowmen stationed on the stern checked us ever with their 
arrows, so as to drive us back afar. 

1379. And at this point, because a terrible billow drove 
the ship to land, and the maiden felt afraid to wet her 
foot, Orestes took her upon his left shoulder, and going 
into the sea, and springing on the ladder, he placed his 
sister within the well-benched ship, and the statue too that 
fell from heaven, the image of Zeus' daughter. And from 
the midst of the ship sounded some cry: "0 mariners 
from Hellas' land, seize the oar and whiten the foam, for 
we have the things for sake of which we sailed into the 
inhospitable passage within the Symplegades." 

1390. And they, crying out with a groaning sound that was 
sweet music, smote the brine, and the ship, as long indeed 
as it was within the harboui', made way ; but as it passed 
the mouth it fell in with a huge billow and was distressed, 
for a terrible wind coming suddenly, ever drove the hull 
stern foremost; but they held out, struggling against 


the waves ; but a back-flowing billow drove the 
ship again to land, and Agamemnon's daughter stood 
and prayed: "O daughter of Leto, bring me, thv 
priestess, safe to Hellas from a barbarian land, and 
pardon my theft ! Thou, too, lovest thy brother, goddess ; 
so deem that I, too, love those of my blood." And the 
sailors sang a paean responsive to the maiden's prayers, 
fitting to the oar their arms, bare from the shoulder, at 
their leader's note. 

1406. But more and more the vessel came upon the 
rocks ; and one rushed on foot into the sea, and another 
strove to fasten twisted nooses to the ship. And I, indeed, 
at once was sent away hither to thee, to signify to thee, 
O king, the chances there. 

1411. But go, taking bonds and nooses in thy hands; 
for if the swell becomes not calm, there is no hope of 
deliverance for the strangers. Now the ruler of the deep, 
awful Poseidon, both watches over Ilium, and is adverse 
to the sons of Pelops ; and now it seems he will olfer 
Agamemnon's son to thee and the citizens a prey for your 
iiancis, and the sister, too, who in the goddess' despite is 
proved false to the slaughter at Aulis, and has forgotten it. 
1420. Cho. O luckless Iphigenia, with thy brother thou 
wilt die, coming again into thy masters' hands ! 

Tho. Ho ! all ye citizens of this foreign land, will ye 
not up and throw the reins upon your steeds, and run 
along the cUffs and receive the wreckage of the Greek 
si lip, and, speeding with the goddess on your side, hunt 
impious men? And will not ye others drag the swiftly 
faring ships to the deep, that in chase by sea and land 
we may catch them, and either hurl them down from the 
rugged rock, or impale cheir bodies on stakes. 

But you women, the accomplices in these plots, here- 
after, when I have gained leisure, we will put to penalty ; 
but now, having the earnest task which is set before us, 
we will not stay iclle. 

Enter Athena. 

1435. Athena. Whither, whither, dost thou conduct 
this pursuit, King Thoas ? Hear these words from me 

IPH. T. 12 


here, Athena. Stay from pursuing- and from speeding 
forth thy army's flow ; for fate-driven by the oracles of 
Loxias did Orestes come hither, and fleeing from the 
Erinyes' wrath, and fain to convey his sister to Argos, 
and to bring the holy image to my land thus winning a 
respite from his now present troubles. 

To thee this tale is told by me ; but for Orestes, whom 
thou thinkest to slay having caught him on the ocean 
surge, already Poseidon, in favour to me, is setting clear 
of billows the ridges of the sea, conveying him in his ship. 

1446. And, learning my injunctions, Orestes, for thou 
hearest a goddess' voice though afar, fare on with the 
image and thy sister. And when thou comest to Athens, 
the god-built, there is a spot hard by the farthest bounds 
of the Attic land, neighbour to the ridge of Carystus, a 
sacred spot, Halae my people name it ; there build a 
temple, and set thee up the image, recording the Tauric 
land and thy labours which thou didst toil, through to the 
end, roaming over Hellas under the Erinyes' stings. But 
as Artemis shall mortals for the future celebrate her, a 
Tauric goddess. And establish thou this custom : wlien 
the people keep high feast, to atone for thy slaughter, let 
them hold the kiiife to a man's throat and let forth blood, 
for religion's sake, and that the goddess may have her 

1462. But thee, Iphigenia, it behoves about the awful 
terraces of Brauron to be warden for this goddess, where 
also thou shalt lie buried after death : and as an offering 
to thee, they shall present fine-woven webs of robes, that 
women who rend their soul in birth-pangs leave behind 
them in their houses. And these G-reek women I charge 
thee to send forth from the land ... on account of a 
just decision; and I saved thee even before on Ares' hills 
by counting the votes as equal, Orestes ; and this shall be 
a custom, that whoso receives equal votes shall gain his 

But convey thy sister home from the land, son of 
Agamemnon, and thou, Thoas, be not wroth. 

1476. Tho. Queen Athena, whoever hears and disobeys 
the words of the gods is not right-minded. And with 


Orestes, if lie lias gone with tlie goddess' image, I am not 
T^roth, nor with, his sister. For what good is it to match 
one's seK against the mighty gods? Let them go to thy 
land with the goddess' image, and may they establish the 
idol with good hap ! But I will send these women too to 
happy Hellas, as thy command enjoins; and I will check 
the spear which I am raising against the strangers, and 
check the ships' oars, since this pleases thee, goddess. 

Ath. I approve; for necessity is master of thee, yea 
and of the gods. 

1487. Gro ! Ye breezes, convey Agamemnon's son to 
Atheus, and I will journey with them, keeping safe my 
sister's awful image. 

Cho. Go with good fortune in the number of the saved, 
heaven-blest. But 0, revered both among immortals and 
among mortals, Pallas Athene, we will do thus as thou 
biddest. For a right pleasant and unhoped-for utterance 
have I welcomed with. my hearing. 

greatly revered victory, mayst thou control my life, 
and not cease to crown me ! [iJxetint. 



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Pro Cluentio, 2/0 
Pro Lege Manilla, 1/6 
Pro Marcello, 1/6 
Pro Milone, 1/6 
Pro Plancio. 1/6 
Pro S. Roscio Am., 1/6 
Somnium Scipionis, 

Somnium Scipionis and 

Pro Archia, 1/6 
Somnium Scipionis and 

Pro Rege Deiotaro, 


Demosthenes — 

Androtion, 1/9 
De Corona. 1/6 
Meidias, 1/6 

Euripides — 

Alcestis, Hecuba, 
Medea (each) 1/3 

Euripides (cont.) — 

Andromache, Bacchae, 
Hercules Furens, 
Iphigenia in Tauris 

(each), 1/6 
Heraclidae, 1/9 

Herodotus — 

Bk. 2, 1/9 

Bk. 4 (Ch. 1-144), 1/6 

Bk. 6. 1/9 

Bk. 7. 1/9 

Bk. 8, 1/6 

Homer — 

Iliad, Bks. 22-24. 1/6 
Oydssey, Bk. 4, I/O; 

Bks. 9-14, 2/0 ; Bk. 

17, 1/0 

Horace — ■ 

Epistles (incl. A. P.), 

Odes, Bks. 1, 2, 3, 4 

(each) 1/0 
Satires, 1/9 

Isocrates — 

De Bigis, 1/3 

Juvenal — 

Satires (except 2, 6, 9), 


Bks. 1, 2 (Ch. 1-50), 3, 5, 
0,9, 21, 22, (each) 1/6 

Lucretius — 

Bk. 5. 1/9 

Lysias — 

Eratosthenes and 

Agora tus, 2/0 


Fasti. Bks. 3, 4, 1/9 

Bk. 1, 1/0 

Bk. 8. 1/0 ^ , 

Bks. 13. 14 (each) I/O 
Tristia. Bks. 1, 3 (each) 


Plato — J 

Apology, 1/9 fi 

Crito, 1/6 f, 

Euthyphro, 1/6 j 

Gorgias, 5/0 j 

Ion. 1/6 N 

Laches, 1/9 1 
Phaedo, 3/0 

Plautus — ^ 

Captivi, 1/3 

Sallust — 

Catiline, l/O .| 

Sophocles — 

Ajax. 1/3 
Antigone, 1/3 
Electra, 1/3 
Oedipus Coloneus 
Philoctetes, 1/3 

Tacitus — 

Agricola, 1/9 
Annals, Bks. 1, 2, 
Germania, 1/6 
Histories, Bk. 1, 
Histories, Bk. 3, ; 


Adelphi, 1/6 
Phormio, l/6 


Bk. 1, 2/0 
Bk. 2, 1/6 
Bk. 4, 1/6 
Bk. 7, 1/6 


Aeneid. Bks. 1. 2, 
6,6,7,8,11,12 ( 
Aeneid. Bks. 9, 10 
Georgics. 1-4, 1/9 

Xenophon — 

Anabasis, Bks, 1, 

(each) 1/3 
Hellenica, Bk. 8, 
Hellenica, Bks. 3, 
OeconomicuB, 2/3 

A detailed catalogue of the above can be obtained on applicatii 


1* ' 








in Tauris 


cop. 2 

Sig Sam